The CBd
Bonner, SMA, 170.

it is so strangely formed that its meaning is a matter for conjecture; yet it occurs in magical invocations to Arktos (the Great Bear) and Selene.17 It is also evidently to be read in the lead tablet published by Collart, which opens with the conjuration ὀρκίζω σε, νεκυοδαίμων, ὅστις ποτὲ εἶ, κατὰ τῆς κυρίας Βριμὼ προκύνητε νυκτοδρόμα, etc.18 The editor's suggestion προ(σ)κύνητε, adopted by Liddell-Scott-Jones, can scarcely stand view of the other evidence for προκύνη, though it is true that τε is a difficulty.
On the whole, it is most likely that προκύνη, however irregular its formation, is an epithet referring to the goddess as attended by a pack of baying hounds. Pollux lists προκυνεῖν as meaning “bark before the time,” “give tongue too soon”; there is a phrase of Antiphanes, πικροὶ Καλλιμάχου πρόκυνες, “snapping hounds of Callimachus.”19 As Προκύων is the star that goes before Sirius, Προκύνη is Hecate as leader of her pack of hellhounds (cf. σκυλάγεια in an address to Hecate in the Paris magical papyrus);20 or else it is a noun strangely formed on the analogy of Προκύων and calls Hecate herself “hound,” as in another passage of the same papyrus where she is κύων μέλαινα.
Ῥηξίχθων, the third epithet on the Walters amulet, has been exhaustively treated by Cook, who gathers a large number of passages in which the word occurs.21 In magical texts it is used chiefly of Hecate, to whom it is appropriate as an underworld goddess, able to open a chasm in the earth at will, as she does Lucian's Philopseudes (24). On the amulets I have seen it only on the Walters Art Gallery specimen and (in the form ρησιχθων) on a yellow jasper in my possession.22 The design of the latter is the common Pantheos.
It is convenient to treat together several names and epithets that are clearly of Semitic origin or are affected by Semitic religious ideas. The commonest of all, Iao, has been discussed Chapter II, and also the words commonly associated with it, Sabaoth and Adonai. Sabaoth, or Sabao, a form which often occurs, sometimes found alone and was evidently thought to be a divine name in itself, the phrase JHVH Sabaoth, “ Jahveh of Hosts,” being forgotten.
The Jewish angel names preserved in Greek magical texts have been examined by M. Schwab and Erik Peterson.23 Those engraved on gem amulets add little of importance to what is known from other sources. The names of the archangels Michael, Gabriel, Uriel, and Raphael are very commonly inscribed, and Suriel seems to be next in order of frequency. Koustiel, which occurs with Michael, Gabriel, and Raphael on a carnelian in the

17 PGM VII, 691,885.
18 Rev. de Philol., 4 (1930), p. 249.
19 Poll. 5, 65; Antiphanes in Anth. Pal. 11, 322.
20 PGM IV, 2722.
21 Zeus, III, 4–5.
23 M. Schwab, Vocabulaire de l'angélologie, Mém. Acad. Inscr., Sér. I, 10, 2, 113–430; E. Peterson, “Engel- und Dämonennamen,” Rh. Mus., 75 (1926), 393–421.

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