The CBd
Bonner, SMA, 24.

When Osiris is replaced by Sarapis (Oser-Hap, Osiris-Apis), the attendant goddesses are Hellenized in dress and attributes; the three might be taken to represent Hades with Demeter and Kore (D. 19–20). The youthful Horus appears on many amulets, Horus as a child (Harpocrates) on still more, sometimes with Isis, often alone, seated on a lotus flower and adored by baboons or by triads of various animals — hawks, goats, crocodiles, snakes, scarab beetles (D. 189–210). Both before and after the beginning of Greek influence Isis absorbed other goddesses into herself, and her form in art is modified correspondingly. The cow-headed goddess that appears on some of our amulets represents a fusion of Hathor with Isis (D. 2728). Much more common are examples of Isis as Aphrodite or as Tyche (D. 2324). Anubis appears not infrequently, sometimes supporting the mummy of Osiris, sometimes standing alone (D. 7, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41).
Whether Set, the enemy of Osiris, is to be recognized upon any magical amulets is a disputed point. Certainly there are stones showing a male figure with what looks like an ass's head, and the ass was undoubtedly associated with Set in the later periods of Egyptian religion. Some amulets showing an ass-headed figure have been suspected as forgeries, in others the supposed representations of Set may actually be meant for Anubis; for the lapidaries were not always skilful enough to discriminate clearly, in a minute design, between the muzzle and the ears of an ass and those of a jackal. There are even some stones on which the common snake-footed demon has been thought to have the head of an ass, because the stonecutter's attempt at the head of a cock was so clumsy. But in spite of these doubts there seems to be a residue of ass-headed figures that cannot be explained away.9 Some of them may be monuments of the Gnostic Ophites or Sethians.
The ibis-headed Thoth appears occasionally; a crowned ibis replaces him on other specimens, and the Greek Hermes with kerykeion and purse on still others (D. 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 177). The ancient deity Min is seen on very few magical amulets (D. 50), and he may owe his survival to a tendency to identify him with Horus or with Osiris.10 Rare also are examples of Thueris (D. 51), the hippopotamus goddess,11 and the ram-headed Chnum-Amon (D. 52). The former is probably to be recognized on a chalcedony at one time in the Wyndham Cook collection (now in that of Professor A. B. Cook); in the original publication the figure was described as the frog-headed goddess Hekt.12 The comical dwarf god Bes, believed to bring good luck and protect children,13 is sometimes found in a group of three or four divinities associated with a symbol, to be discussed later (Chap. VI), which appears to represent the uterus; he is also commonly engraved on the reverse of some stones

9 A. Blancher has published two similar stones which, he thinks, may have served as secret means of mutual recognition among the members of an Ophite or a Sethian sect. They show on the obverse a snake-legged demon with the head of an ass, on the reverse a serpent (CRAI 1920, 147 ff.).
10 For Min cf. Müller, pp. 138 ff. There is an exhaustive account of this god in PW Suppl. VI, 432–461.
11 Thueris, De Ridder 3467, Pl. 29; Chnum, Wyndham Cook, 246, Pl. 9.
12 Wyndham Cook, 251, Pl. 9.
13 Müller, pp. 61 ff. See also H. R. Hall's note, “An Egyptian St. Christopher” (JEA 15 Spier, Gems on CBd-911, 1, with Pl. 1), describing a bronze figure of Bes with the child Horus astride his shoulder, holding on to his feathered headdress.

Last modified: 2012-11-05 09:38:28

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